Antisthenes was followed by Diogenes of Sinope, who lived in a tub on the streets of Athens, and ate raw meat, taking Cynicism to its logical extremes. You’ve read one of your four complimentary articles for this month. Cynic, member of a Greek philosophical sect that flourished from the 4th century bce to well into the Common Era, distinguished as much for its unconventional way of life as for its rejection of traditional social and political arrangements, professing instead a cosmopolitan utopia and communal anarchism. In these cities Cynics – recognized at once by their ‘uniform’, consisting of a single cloak (folded double when it was cold), a walking-staff, and a travelling-bag, and by their matted hair and unkempt beards – were, it seems, a familiar sight, anticipating hospitality in return for a display of wit and wisdom: that is, for their satirical tongues and their unlicensed telling of home truths. So in one respect Crates is like any other guy, warning his beloved, “I am who I am, so don’t go trying to change me.”  What a charming story, what a crazy story. It would be better to fall in with crows than flatterers (in Greek, korokas vs. kolakas), for you are devoured by crows when dead, but by flatterers when you are alive.” When his friends offered to ransom him, he refused, saying that “lions are not the slaves of those who feed them; it is the feeders, rather, who are the lions’ slaves. For Nietzsche this is because the one is dead and the other is yet to come. There is a proto-feminism in the words attributed to Crates addressing Hipparchia that “women are not by nature the weaker sex” but rather are made so by convention. Animals were content with little. Human beings were never content, however much they had, but were always striving to acquire possessions of which they had no need. Did they sleep in separate pots, or was the pot in the marketplace big enough for both of them? Diogenes dominates the story of Cynicism like no other figure, and he came to be seen as the archetypal Cynic philosopher. See more. Cynics wanted people to live their lives in the light of that understanding – to free themselves from their self-imposed fetters, and to live in a way that in modern terms we would call ‘authentic’. Some of his sayings include: p.5. […]. The Cynic lesson remains, however. Poverty consists in the desire to have everything, and through violent means if necessary' From their founding in the fifth century BC and for over 800 years, the Cynic philosophers… That honour belongs to his teacher Antisthenes, who had in turn been influenced by Socrates, whom he knew. Later in life, when he was traveling, he was captured by pirates and sold into slavery in Corinth. Nevertheless, although the call of Diogenes is as radical as the call of Jesus, it is to a very different end. Instead, Crates was everything to her. They understand the process of moral development and the necessity of moral education. From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core. Cynicism is as much an anti-philosophy as it is a philosophy: there is a clownish element in it which mocks excessive intellectualism. The criteria for inclusion in this list is fairly mild. He does not belong to any particular race, but is simply a human being, although in a way that few human beings achieve. This is a list of Cynic philosophers, ordered (roughly) by date. We are a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for us to earn fees by linking to Amazon.com and affiliated sites. And although our vision is closer to Plato in Augustine’s interpretation than to Diogenes, we expressed it under a simple and well-established headline – “Cynic.” Even when compared to the reminiscences of Lame Deer and Black Elk the Tales of the Northwest are superior. I can’t improve on Diogenes Laertius: “Hipparchia fell in love with Crates and with his discourses and his life. Standing a little apart from the rest of society, he has the right to exercise frankness, and in this there is a proud record, particularly among the Cynics of the Roman Empire who were unafraid to address the Emperor himself in the sharpest tones, delineating his vices and shortcomings when no others dared to do so. Once when a student asked what he should bring to his lectures, he replied, “A new book, a new pen, and a new tablet,” meaning he should bring with him an eagerness to learn. Crates, therefore, when entreated by her parents to dissuade her daughter, did all he could; but at last, failing to persuade her, he stood up, took off his clothes in front of her, and said, ‘This is the bridegroom, and this is his property; think it over! Once describing a life of exile, self-denial, physical rigor, and mastery of one’s desires, cynicism now describes a life of political quietism, passivity, and moral indifference, representing not a weakening of ancient philosophic norms but rather their inversion. The word ‘cynic’ comes from the Greek word for ‘dog’, kunos: Cynicism was seen as a sort of dog-philosophy that reduced human beings to the level of animals. The contempt for mere material possessions is taken to extremes by Diogenes. “When observing a boy tossing stones at the cross of a gallows, he said, ‘Well done! [2], DIOGENES OF SINOPE, LIVING IN A TUB IN THE SQUARE, Diogenes was an exile in Athens who wanted to study under Antisthenes. “People exert themselves when exercising at the gymnasium but make no effort at strengthening their character.” […], Tales of the Northwest is the most remarkable collection of Indian stories I have encountered. For Diogenes the only world was this world, the gods were of no account, and the giving up of material goods was not the prelude to an eternal life in heaven but the better to secure happiness on earth. You can read four articles free per month. I am involved in the Catholic divorce ministries in our diocese, and have finished the diocese two-year Catholic Lay Ministry program. […], To be Greek is to read Homer. And without that there can be nothing moral, nothing right.” In one way this misses the point, in that the Cynics try to rid us of the sense of shame, supposing it to come merely from convention. Más información. Seeing a child cupping his hands to drink water, he discards his own cup, leaving him one less item to carry around on his travels. However, the sober view of cynicism on the modern world of intellectual chimeras has confirmed its effectiveness. Diogenes took over this inheritance and remade it as his own. In Diogenes’ case the point is that we already know that there is such a thing as motion, so any argument to the contrary must be wrong. Was there a real wedding, and did the parents attend? This is the point of the story about the supposed meeting with Alexander the Great, which is historically improbable, to say the least: as is the latter’s supposed quip that “If I were not Alexander I would be Diogenes.” Instead we should take it as an exemplary Cynical tale: that the likes of Alexander with all their riches have nothing to offer the likes of Diogenes, who are sufficient to themselves. The last observation refers to this very odd girl Hipparchia who fell madly in love with Crates, which should encourage nerds who have a hard time finding love. One great place to start is the unintimidating anthology "The Cynic Philosophers from Diogenes to Julian," which covers a few centuries of Cynic thinking, including its evolution and criticisms. Virtue is all that is needed for happiness, “since it needs nothing but the strength of Socrates. Unlike Julian, few would now claim Cynicism to be among the ‘best’ of philosophies, and many would find it difficult to regard it as much of a philosophy at all. He went barefoot even in the winter, his possessions consisted of a clock and what he could carry in a knapsack. Did they only consort after dark? They had no interest in general education or literature, their only concern was how to live a life of virtue. In a society where the institution of slavery was largely taken for granted, it is refreshing to find thinkers who question whether anyone is a slave by nature. However, the similarities may be more than fortuitous. Demetrius, the first true Roman Cynic, was the scourge of three successive emperors, Caligula, Nero, and Vespasian, and remarkably, suffered nothing worse than exile. Virtue is a matter of deeds and needs no abundance of words or learning.”  The wise man needs only the law of virtue to govern his behavior, he does not need written laws. For such readers, the popular philosophers of the Greco-Roman world deserve their self-designation as doctors of the soul. Pages: 29. And what is more, she even threatened his parents, saying that she would commit suicide unless she were given to him. We can’t all be like Diogenes, but we can all see the lesson about how much we could simplify our lives – how much our needs can be met without surrounding ourselves with superfluous material possessions. His ... (Il Principe), brought him a reputation as an atheist and an immoral cynic. Along with the disparagement of luxury and wealth goes a contempt for, or levelling-down of, the great ones of the earth. (The story sounds too good to be true, but it seems clear that at one point the Academy did arrive, if only temporarily, at this definition. “Seeing a lad behaving effeminately, Diogenes said, ‘Aren’t you ashamed to fall short of nature’s intentions for you? But to have achieved such distinguished mention over the centuries, and indeed, for the movement to have survived over so long a period, there must be more to Cynicism than the tale of a man and his tub. Although Antisthenes threatened him with his staff, Diogenes was obstinate, he wanted to be his student, he shouted, “Strike, for you’ll not find wood hard enough to keep me away from you, as long as I think you have something to say.”  Diogenes was just as contrary, when a young fellow wanted to study under him, “he gave him a fish and told him to follow him. The major figures within Cynicism form the pivotal points within a lineage traced from Antisthenes, Socrates’ companion and a major interlocutor in the Socratic dialogues of Xenophon (see especially his Memorabilia and Symposium), through his student, Diogenes of Sinope, to Diogenes’ pupil Crates, and from Crates to both Hipparchiaof Maronea, the first known woman Cynic philosopher, and Zeno of Citium, the founder of Stoicism. (It should be said that Julian’s Diogenes is a somewhat sanitised version.) País de publicación : España. The fewer wants you train yourself to have, the more likely it is that you will find satisfaction in life. The scroll in his right hand is an 18th-century restoration. Chapters: Roman era Cynic philosophers, Antisthenes, Crates of Thebes, Diogenes of Sinope, István Cs. A footnote explains that Diogenes’ practice of masturbating in public is mentioned twice in the Lives of Eminent Philosophers, that “it was not some perverse personal quirk of Diogenes, but rather an especially dramatic way to challenge conventional inhibitions and taboos.”  Maybe the modern equivalents are streaking and breastfeeding in public, or the hippie expressions of free love. The term originally derives from the ancient Greek philosophers, the Cynics, who rejected all conventions, whether of religion, manners, housing, dress, or … Freeing us from unnecessary sexual taboos is one thing; urging us to be like dogs is another. Many questions puzzle scholars. Scholar and Stoics alike wish that at least some of the intact works of the Greek Cynic and Greek Stoic philosophers, but the summaries of Diogenes Laertius, sometimes revealing, sometimes shallow, always cursory, is pretty much all that has survived, except when Seneca and the later Stoics repeat their ideas. 'Poverty does not consist in the want of money,' I answered, 'nor is begging to be deplored. There was nothing sacred about humanity, nor for Diogenes would it be a tragedy if the human race died out any more than if flies ceased to exist. Modern philosophy got its start in Western Europe during the Seventeenth Century. Also, “he constantly reproached the courtesans, training himself to endure their abuse.”[5]. Human beings were just a sort of animal that had lost the simple capacity for happiness that other animals had. Diogenes Laertius tells us the Cynics were only interested in ethics, and unlike the other philosophical schools, they had no interest in logic and physics, much like the later Roman Stoics. The cynics is philosophical movement, which give to ancient greek thinking few of the famous philosophers. Diogenes was no isolated eccentric, simply the most famous exponent of a philosophical movement that lasted (with intermissions) close to a thousand years. They guaranteed happiness to their adherents through freedom of speech, poverty, self-sufficiency and physical hardiness. ANTISTHENES, THE FIRST CYNIC PHILOSOPHER Antisthenes, the first Cynic philosopher, walked five miles a day to listen to Socrates, finding inspiration in his simplicity and his hardiness, adopting his ascetic practices. This site uses cookies to recognize users and allow us to analyse site usage. In his own time his fame was such that Aristotle in his work on rhetoric could refer to him simply as ‘the Cynic’ without need of further identification. The Cynics did not themselves deny the existence of the gods – few of the ancient philosophers did – but neither were they exactly reverential to them. In Xenophon’s Symposium (c.360 BCE), Antisthenes says that by embracing the simple life, “leisure, the most enviable thing of all, is always mine to enjoy. 'Poverty does not consist in the want of money,' I answered, 'nor is … There is, however, an absence of tribal feeling in the Cynics: Diogenes is not a citizen of a particular town or country, he is not an Athenian, or a Corinthian, but in his wandering life, he is a citizen of the cosmos. In The Making of Modern Cynicism, David Mazella asks: how did ancient Cynic philosophy come to provide a name for © Philosophy Now 2020. [2] Diogenes Laertius, “Lives of Eminent Philosophers,” Book 6: 1-12, pp. Diogenes in his tub is more fortunate in every way that counts than Xerxes on his golden Persian throne. Yet the comments by Cynics on this issue hardly attack the institution full on; rather, the master is simply mistaken in thinking that he does not do better by attending to his own needs without the aid of his slave. If one part of the Cynic’s training is to achieve indifference to physical discomfort, another is to prepare for the derision and contempt he or she is likely to receive from other people. Desmond further argues that, if Cynicism is a form of asceticism, it is one that is cheerful and hedonistic, not one that is life-denying. “When short of money Diogenes would tell his friends that he was not asking them give him money, but to give it back.”  “He reasoned this way: all things belong to the gods; the wise are friends of the gods, and the possessions of friends are held in common; therefore, all things belong to the wise.”, “To someone who reproached him for going to unclean places, he said, ‘The sun, too, visits dung heaps without being defiled.’ “, Diogenes Laertius records many sayings of Diogenes of Sinope. 305-306. The romantic adventures among the Iroquois Indians in James Fennimore Cooper’s Leatherstocking Tales, including Last of the Mohicans and Deerslayer, have their moments, but Tales of the Northwest surpass them in their vivid realism. For fear is the mark of a slave, and wild beasts make men fearful.”. “Those who surround themselves with flatterers are as friendless as calves among wolves; for neither the former nor the latter have anyone to protect them, but only the sort who plot against them.” List of Cynic Philosophers - Wikipedia - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. For example, many Greeks took seriously Parmenides’ arguments for the non-existence of change or motion, illustrated in the paradoxes of Zeno such as Achilles and the tortoise. Diogenes responded that his eyes could see tables and cups, but not ideal table-hood and cup-hood in the heavens. Socrates, after all, may have had little taste for material comforts, and may have gone barefoot, but, like most people, he lived in a house not a barrel; he had a wife and children: he even had a profession, although he rarely seemed to practise it. Poverty consists in the desire to have everything, and through violent means if necessary' From their founding in the fifth century BC and for over 800 years, the Cynic philosophers sought to cure humanity of greed and vice with their proposal of living simply. Diogenes is said to have masturbated in public, and wished that hunger could be satisfied as easily as the sex urge. Nietzsche, who admired Diogenes as a fellow ‘free spirit’, appropriated this Cynical theme in his own ‘transvaluation of all values’. Musicians take the trouble to tune their lyres while their souls are disordered. This could never happen at Berkeley, this could only happen in ancient Athens or Corinth, only the Greeks could tolerate such gadflies and wasps of philosophers. Roman Era Cynic Philosophers: Marcus Favonius: Amazon.es: Books, LLC: Libros en idiomas extranjeros Selecciona Tus Preferencias de Cookies Utilizamos cookies y herramientas similares para mejorar tu experiencia de compra, prestar nuestros servicios, entender cómo los utilizas para poder mejorarlos, y para mostrarte anuncios. Athens was the Berkeley of the ancient world, that the Cynics were contrarians, like our sixties flower children, minus the drugs, but with the same disregard for material success and authority figures. Here are the famous philosophers whose teachings and theories create the shape of modern philosophy. See also Category:Cynic philosophers. 308-309. The Cynics worked primarily by satire, scurrility, wit, and provocation: except for them, philosophy was (and is) largely a laughter-free zone. Then E-Mail Me! Humans in turn, in order to be self-sufficient themselves, had no need of the gods. Jump to: navigation, search. You’ll get there yet!’ “ Statue of an unknown Cynic philosopher from the Capitoline Museums in Rome. The man, thinking he had been insulted, threw the fish away and departed. Work does not figure high in the Cynic ethos, and certainly is not a value in itself: it is in leisure, the freedom to do what one wants, that life’s essence lies. The Cynic Philosophers: from Diogenes to Julian (Penguin Classics) (English Edition) eBook: Lucian, Diogenes Of Sinope, Julian, Robert Dobbin: Amazon.es: Tienda Kindle Precisely because they focus so precisely on everyday life, the character of the individual and the health of the family their ideas are as fresh today as they were millennia before. Diogenes is said to have spat into the face of a rich man, explaining that he could find no better receptacle for his spittle. They analyze the passions of fear and desire, of envy and rage with brilliant insight. 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